Tuesday, April 6, 2010

被遗忘的民族-本南人 Penan-The Forgotten Tribe

一代接一代,我们都是住在森林。
From one generation to another, we live in the forest.


这些孩子都没有读书,学校太远
或父母不知教育的重要?
None of these children go to school.
They live too far away from schools?
Or they just don't know the importance of education?


這隻犀鸟,已成桌上佳肴
We have hornbill for dinner

前村长,年轻时是狩猎高手(左图)
这药怎样吃?(右上图)
是厨房,也是客厅(右下图)
Long Kawa former headman (right)
An elderly couple in Long Bangan showed
us a plastic bag full of medicine,
they don't know how to take them (top right),
Kitchen and dinning all in one room (bottom right)

几乎每一戶人家都有养鸡。在Long Win,
向村长买了一只做晚餐,12马币。
In Long Win, most Penan household rear chicken,
we bought one for RM12 for dinner.

My home (top left and bottom)
Sago tree(right)
温暖的家(左图)
沙葛树(右图)

树枝和小木块表示:我们已迁移到小木块所指的方向,
晚上会在那里住宿。被削开的树皮代表人数的多寡,
这是他们传达讯息的方式。(左上图)
午餐时间—沙葛是本南人的主食(右图)
The small piece of wood indicated the direction
of the new location where they will spend the night
and the multiple cut on the bark
means there are more than one family. (top left)
Lunch time- Sago is their traditional staple food (right)


我国独立了53年,各领域确取得一定程度的发展,为了把国家经济带到另一高峰,首相最近推展了新经济发展模式。这是好事,关键是由政府推动的计划是否能让所人受惠?住在砂拉越乌鲁巴南(Ulu Baram) 的本南(Penan)人明显不属于被照顾的行列,可喻为已被遗忘的民族,几十年来,他们的生活至今非但没有获得改善,反而有每况愈下的迹象,前景令人担忧!

我在乌鲁巴南内陆两个本南村住了3个晚上,亲身体会本南人的生活,深感他们的无奈和无助。对于他们的生活情况,我想套用美里摄影学会会长萧特财先生的话:‘本南人的悲歌唱不完!’

本南族原本是游牧民族,生活在砂州内陆,居无定所,以狩猎捉鱼和采野果为生。生活条件艰苦,数代人如此过活,却自得其乐。

近年,州政府大量伐木,严重地影响森林生态,也直接干扰了本南人的生活。森林被砍伐,河水被污染,本南人失去基本生存条件。经过多年的折腾,本南人渐渐放弃游牧生活,无奈迁移到固定地点,自己盖了简陋的木屋住下来。根据Long Win村长Juwan先生说:砂州本南人人口约16000名,目前约45百人还住在森林里,余者已迁出来。

新环境并没有改善本南人的生活,一样没有水电供应和基本卫生设备。除了偶尔有外来的汽车,便没有任何交通工具,从一个村庄到另一个村,须步行34小时。他们还是以狩猎为生,由于森林大量被砍伐,猎物也越来越少,诚如马来谚语,他们‘如鸡只般早上找的早上吃,晚上找的晚上吃’,家无‘隔夜粮’。

我们的司机常来這里,說得一口流利的本南土语,他也是非政府组织成员,曾尝试教本南人种农作物,反应不理想,只随意种些沙葛树(Sago)。他感慨地说:目前只要能确保本南人有得吃,就算是一项成就。

政府是否有给帮助?被问者都以失望和生气的眼光看著我们。有的感叹地说:我们已被遗忘了!

The Penans used to live in the rain forest of the interior of the State of Sarawak as a nomadic tribe relying on hunting, fishing and gathering fruits for existence.

With increased logging activity, the Penan have lost their traditional way of life and moved into new settlements throughout Ulu Baram district. Long Win headman Mr. Juwan told me that there are roughly 16,000 Penans in Sarawak and about 400-500 of them still lead a nomadic life in the jungle.

Two weeks ago I traveled with friends from the Photography Society of Miri to a few Penans settlements like Long Win, Long Bangan, Long Latei, Long Kawa and Bapuak. We stayed there for 3 nights. Sadly to say their lives in the settlement have not improved.

Some NGOs built simple long houses for them, but most still live in dilapidated huts with no basic facilities at all. They have not much contact with the outside world. They still hunt, fish and plant sago trees for a living. Though the federal government had made education compulsory a few years ago, none of the children from Bapuak go to school. I think this apply to many of the children in other settlements too. I guess lack of transportation and ignorance are the main reasons.

Did the government help? The answer is always negative! If we want Penans to enjoy the fruits of development, we should look into their problems seriously and come out with a comprehensive plan to help them.

13 comments:

梦熊 - 张峰与 (Wallace Teo) said...

韩老师,你的作品太棒了。。我真的是打开眼界了。有机会希望能和你茶聚,听取你给我们后辈的一些教诲,指导。。我太喜欢看你的 blog 了。张张照片都非常有感觉,你的写作更是棒极了。。非常的生活化。。谢谢你!

山城客 said...

国家政策的偏私造就本南人的悲歌。
本南人生砂州真正的原住民,就如沙州的卡达山杜顺族,是沙州的真正原住民那样。
不过,我觉得本南人的生活条件比卡达山杜顺人还落后,他们的识字率也不及卡达山杜顺人,在教育程度上就已经显示落后了。
国家政策基于种族和宗教的背景,对非我族类不公对待,大肆地侵占本南人世代居住的土地,摧毁他们的文化,却不教育他们,不能说是没有怀清洗目的的。

liewwk said...

thanks for sharing this ... I love to see your's series

吾说八道MyRAF said...

转抄了你的作品。谢谢。

foodbin said...

Oh! what a pity and they are all real Malaysian.

C K Hon said...

Thank you for all the comments and compliments

bobo said...

Uncle Han, 实在太喜欢您的照片了. 每一张都那么令我感动. 终于体验到什么是照片会说话了..

可以得到您的允许让我可以转载您的照片和文字上我的面子书和我的朋友分享吗??

C K Hon said...

bobo-谢谢你上我的网站。欢迎你转载给你朋友。

陈慧思。Wei See Chan。 said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
KK said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
Teoh Laisin said...
This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
想飞的理由 said...

韩大哥:
你的照片,你的文字让人感动!
在杏坛多年,结论:身不由己

Vamos Amigo said...

韩先生,
恕我直言,
政治上我无法认同你;至少摄影上,我是认同你的。你的照片带出了无价的良心,希望你可以为本南族人多摄下更多照片,让同是一个屋檐下的大马人,可以为本南族人作一些事情。